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    ΔΙΕΥΘΥΝΣΗKarate Shotokan - Α.Γ.Σ. ΜΕΓΑΣ
    Χίου 47Α
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  • English

Γλωσσαρι/Ορολογια

Selected Glossary of Japanese Terms used in Aikido

Basic counting in Japanese

Counting in Japanese has more nuances and complexity than counting in English, and the way of counting differs, depending on the nature of the object or thing that is being counted. This guide covers very basic counting that one might commonly encounter during training in the dojo.

One          ichi

eleven         juu-ichi

two           ni

twelve         juu-ni

three         san

thirteen        juu-san

four          yon (or shi)

fourteen       juu-yon

five          go

fifteen          juu go

six            roku

sixteen         juu roku

seven       nana (or shichi)

seventeen     juu shichi

eight        hachi

eighteen       juu hachi

nine         ku (or kyu)

nineteen       juu kyu

ten           jyu

twenty         ni-juu

Some common Japanese expressions used in the Dojo

Japanese Expression

Translation

“arigato gozaimashita!”

“thank-you very much”

“one-gaishimasu!”

lit. “I make a request”
(as in “Please”, when asking for something)

“sumi-masen!”, or
“gomen-nasai!”

“please excuse me!”
(accompanied by a bow)

“hai!”

“yes!”

“oshiete kudasai!”

“please teach me” or
“please show me”

Japanese names of some attacks used in Aikido training

Ai Hanmi Katate tori

one-handed grip on one wrist with mutual posture

Gyaky Hanmi Katate tori

one-handed grip on one wrist with reversed posture

Ryote tori

one-handed grip on each wrist

Katate ryote tori

two-handed grip on one wrist

Mune tori (muna-mochi)

one-handed grip on lapel

Sode tori

one-handed grip on one sleeve

Kata tori

one-handed grip on shoulder

Ryokata tori

one-handed grip on each shoulder

Eri-tori (also: Eri-dori)

collar grasp at the back of the neck

Ushiro ryote tori

ryote-tori grip from behind (also: ushiro ryote tori)

Ushiro ryokata tori

ryokata grip from behind

Ushiro katate kubishime

one-handed grip on wrist and choke from behind

Tsuki

straight punch

Shomen uchi

vertical strike to the head with the hand-blade (or weapon)

Yokomen uchi

diagonal strike to the head with the hand-blade (or weapon)

Kata tori menuchi

one-handed grip on shoulder with shomen-uchi strike

Kata tori yokomen uchi

one-handed grip on the shoulder with yokomen-uchi strike

Types of Aikido Training

Hanmi Handachi waza

techniques executed with an attacker in a standing position and receiver (nage) in a kneeling position

Henka waza

modifying or varying technique(s), or shifting to another technique during execution

Jiyu waza

multiple attack(s)

Kaeshi waza

counter technique(s)

Kata renshu

forms training

Ki-no-nagare

flowing/continuous practice

Kihon waza

basic/static training

Renzoku waza

changing from one technique into another technique

Suwari waza

techniques executed from a kneeling position

Tachi waza

Techniques executed from a standing position

Selected Glossary of Japanese Terms used in Aikido alphabetically

A

“Arigato gozaimasu”

“Thank you”

“Awari” (or “Awarimasu”)

“finished”

Ai

harmony, unity, to join or become one with, to love

Ai-hanmi

asymmetric stance (e.g. right foot to right foot)

Ai-hanmi katate-tori

a wrist grabbing attack, with right on right or left on left. (Compare: Gyaku-hanmi katatedori)

Aiki

harmonizing or blending with energy

Aikibudo

budo based on the aiki principle (one of the earlier names O-Sensei used for Aikido)

Aikido

the way of harmonizing with the force and principle of nature

Aikidoka

one who trains in Aikido (specifically, at an advanced or professional level)

Aikijo

Aikido jo-staff exercises

Aiki-jutsu

refers to a style of jujutsu. The term is often used in reference to Daito Ryu, a style of jujutsu in which the founder trained (Sometimes also referred to as aiki-jujutsu)

Aikikai

Aikido “association” or “organization” or “club”
Also refers to the name of the Aikido association headed by the Ueshiba family

Aiki-ken

sword exercises/forms of Aikido

Aiki-nage

aiki-throw (a throwing technique)

Aiki-otoshi

aiki drop (a throwing technique)

Aiki-taiso

aikido warm-up exercises

Ashi

leg or foot

Atemi (also: Ate)

strike

Awase

to blend/harmonize/match the timing of the attack and response

Ayumi-ashi

leg movement using alternating steps, right and left (similar to a normal walking gait)

B

Batto

sword

Batto-ho

sword training

Bo

a longer wooden staff  (approx. 180-200cm in length)

Bokken

wooden sword

Bokuto

wooden sword

Bu

“Martial” or “military.” The Kanji character for “bu” has two components: one indicates a weapon, while the other means to stop or lay aside. Thus, bu has a different connotation than the direct English translation.

Budo

from Japanese, lit. “the way of battle” or “the way of martial arts”

Budoka

one who trains in budo (specifically refers to someone who is at an advanced or professional level)

Bugei

martial arts/battle arts (older usage)

Bujin

person/people of a martial art tradition

Buki-waza

(also Bukiwaza)

(training in) weapons techniques

Bunbu-ichi

refers to a unity of martial and literary arts. One of the historic ideals of the Japanese samurai class

Bunbu-ryodo

the dual paths of the martial and literary arts. One of the historic ideals of the Japanese samurai class

Bushi

term referring to a classical Japanese warrior or professional martial artist (usually in a historical context)

Bushido

“The Way of the Warrior.” A code of ethics relating to the bushi or samurai class in ancient Japan.

C

Chikara

referring to power, force or strength

Choku

Direct (eg. choku-zuki = direct thrust/punch)

Choku-zuki

(also: Choku-tsuki)

direct, mid-level thrust with the jo or fist

Chudan

Middle guard position (compare with: Jodan=upper position and Gedan: lower position)

Chudan-no-kamae

guard position with hands or a weapon at middle (belly or solar plexus) height

Chudan-zuki
(also: Chudan tsuki)

a thrusting attack (with fist or a weapon) at middle height, aimed at the belly or solar plexus

D

Daisho

refers to the pair of swords traditionally worn by samurai, consisting of a long sword (daito) and short sword (shoto)

Daito ryu

the name of a school/lineage/style of Aiki-jujitsu

Dame

“wrong”, or “bad”

Dan

blackbelt rank (lit: “step”)

Den

“A tradition”, “a teaching” or, “a system” (See ryu)

Deshi (Seito)

student, pupil, disciple, apprentice

Do (Michi)

the “way”, path, or road

“Do chu no sei”

a phrase describing “stillness in motion”.
“Do” is “movement,” while “sei” has the meaning of “calmness.”Do chu no sei” is, then, “calmness in the midst (chu) of action”. When martial arts are depicted as “moving meditation,” it is typically in reference to this quality.

Do-gi (Keiko-gi)

training uniform

Dojo

training hall, place where the ‘way’ is practiced

Dojo cho

title referring to the head/leader of a dojo (Chief Instructor)

Doka

poem about the way

Domo

much (as in: domo arigato gozaimashita)

Domo arigato gozaimasu

thank you very much (for something going on in the present)

Domo arigato gozaimashita

thank you so much (for something completed)

Dori (also: tori)

take, catch, grab

Dosa

action; movement

Doshu

Lit: “way master”; title referring to the leader of a Japanese martial style

“Dozo!”

“Please!”

E

Embu or Embukai

public demonstration

Empi

elbow strike

Eri

referring to the neck or collar

Eri-tori (also: Eri-dori)

collar grasp at the back of the neck

F

Fudo-shin

“Immovable mind”. A state of mental equanimity or imperturbability. Fudoshin does not indicate a state of mind that is inflexible, but rather, refers to a mental state where one is not easily upset by internal thoughts or external factors.

Fuku-shidoin

a formal title with an approximate meaning of “assistant instructor” (compare with shidoin and shihan)

Funakogi undo

“rowing exercise” (also called: Torifune)

Furitama

movement and breathing exercise to still/calm/settle the flow of Ki in the body

Futari

referring to two persons

Futari-dori/Futari-gake

attacks featuring two opponents (also see: ni-nin-gake)

G

-gaeshi (also: Kaeshi)

reversal or change (of direction or technique)

-garami (also: Karami)

tie up, entangle, arrest

Gasshuku

training/seminar/camp; lit: “lodging together”

Gedan

lower position (compare with: Jodan and Chudan)

Gedan-barai

block in a lower position

Geri

Kick (eg. Mae-geri = front kick)

Gi

training garments (also Do-gi or Keiko-gi)

Giri

Duty/obligation

-giri (also: Kiri)

to cut (such as with a sword or knife – eg. Kesa-giri)

Go

the number “Five”

Gokyo

“Fifth technique” – a pinning technique against knife attack

“Gomen-nasai”

“Excuse me”

Go-no-sen

refers to the timing of response to an attack: in this case a “late” or “waiting” response to an attack

Gotai (also see: Kotai)

static training. Compare: jutai, ryutai and ki-no-nagare

Gyaku

reverse, or opposite

Gyaku-hanmi

symmetric stance (eg. Right foot to left foot). Compare with Ai-hanmi

Gyaku-hanmi katatedori

a wrist grabbing attack, with right on left or left on right. (Compare: Aihanmi katatedori)

Gyaku-kesa

diagonal upward cut, from low to high position

Gyaku-te

referring to a reversed hand position

Gyaku-tsuki

a thrusting strike with opposing arm and leg forward

H

Ha

refers to the cutting edge of a Japanese Sword

Hachi

the number “Eight”

Hagakure

Meaning “In the Shadow of Leaves”, is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the Japanese samurai Yamamoto Tsunetomo. Tsuramoto Tashiro compiled these commentaries from his conversations with Tsunetomo from 1709 to 1716. However, it was not published until many years afterwards. Hagakure is also known as the The Book of the Samurai, Analects of Nabeshima, or the Hagakure Analects.

“Hai!”

“Yes!”

“Hajime”

“begin!”

Hakama

pleated divided-skirt (usually worn by senior ranks in Aikido)

Hancho

team leader or chairperson

Hanmi

basic oblique stance common to aikido

Hanmi-handachi

nage kneeling and uke standing

Hantai

opposed

Happo

eight directions (compare: Shiho)

Happo-giri

eight direction cutting (compare: Shiho-giri)

Happo-moku

attention in all (eight) directions

Hara

the body’s center of gravity located in the area of the lower abdomen (see also: Tanden)

Harai (also: Barai)

a sweeping block

Harai-zuki

jo technique consisting of a sweeping block/parry, followed by a thrusting counter attack

Hasso-gaeshi

jo technique that involves sweeping the jo through an arc to a vertical position at shoulder level

Hasso-kamae

guard position with a weapon raised vertically at the shoulder level

“Hayaku!”

“quickly!”

Heiho

method (of training)

Henka-waza

changing techniques during the execution of basic techniques or shifting to other techniques

Hiragana

Japanese phonetic writing. (Compare: Katakana)

Hito e mi

making the body small: guard position with more angle than hanmi (see also: Ura Sankaku)

Ho

method (of training)

Hidari

left (side or direction)

Hiji

elbow

Hiji-jime/Hiji-kime

elbow lock (also called: Rokkyo in some dojo)

Hiji-ryoku

elbow power

Hineri

twist

Hiza

knee

Hombu

headquarters dojo or organization (in Aikido this is usually used in reference to Aikido World Headquarters in Tokyo, Japan)

I

Ichi

the number “one”

Ikkyo

“first technique” arm immobilization

“Ima!”

“now!”

Irimi

entering movement (lit: “enter body”)

Irimi-nage

throw by entering (irimi) either in front of, or  behind an opponent

J

Jiyu

Free; freedom

Jiyu-waza

free-style techniques

Jo (also: Jyo)

‘shorter’ wooden staff (approx. 130-135cm in length)

Jodo (also: Jyodo)

the way of the staff

Jo-nage (also: Jyo-nage)

nage (with jo) defends against/throws one or more unarmed attacker(s)

Jo-tori (also: Jyo-tori)

jo taking (disarming) techniques

Jodan

upper guard (high) position

Jodan tsuki

straight punch/thrust to the face or neck

Jodan-gaeshi

upper position block and counter attack with the jo

Joseki

Reference to position/location in the dojo position – the place of honored, or high seat, on one’s right side when facing the kamiza

Ju (also: Jyu)

soft, flexible

Ju (also: Jyu)

the number “ten”

Juji

plus sign, vertical cross (lit: “10 symbol”)

Juji-garami

crossed arm-lock throw

Juji-nage

crossed arm-lock throw

Ju-jutsu (also: jujitsu)

lit: “soft skill”

Jun-tsuki

strike with the same arm and leg forward, also called: oitsuki (compare: gyakutsuki)

Jutai

“soft body” or smooth training.
(compare: gotai, ryutai and ki-no-nagare)

Jutsu

lit: “skill”; “technique” or “art”

K

Kaeshi (also: Gaeshi)

reversal or change (of direction or technique)

Kaeshi-waza

technique reversals or counters (lit. reversing technique)

Kaeshi-tsuki

(also: Kaeshi-zuki)

reverse hand thrusting strike with the jo-staff

Kaiten

Turning around; revolving

Kaiten-nage

rotation throw

Kakari-keiko

(also: Kakari-geiko)

continuous attack training (often in groups forming a line of sequential attackers)

Kaku

corner/angle (eg. Sankaku = triangle)

Kakudo

angle

Kaiso

Founder or originator

Kamae

guard stance or ready position (also: gamae)

Kamiza

refers to an honorary location in the dojo: Lit. “Seat of the gods”

Kan

intuition

Kangeiko

“cold training”; referring to a period of high intensity winter training

Kanji

Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system, along with hiragana, katakana, and the Arabic numerals. The Japanese term kanji literally means “Han characters”.

Kansetsu

joint (on the body)

Kansetsu-waza

techniques that involve pinning/immobilization using joint locks

Karami
(also: Garami)

tie up, entangle, arrest

Kata

pre-defined forms or specific techniques

Kata

shoulder

Kata-gatame

shoulder pin

Katakana

Japanese phonetic writing. (Compare: hiragana)

Katame

lit: to harden, solidify, fix, stabilize

Katame-waza

pinning/immobilization techniques

Kata-mochi

one handed grip to one shoulder

Katana

Japanese sword

Katate

Lit: “one-side hand”

Katate-tori

one handed grip on one wrist

Katate-tori kubishime

one handed grip to wrist with neck choke from behind

Kata-tori

one handed grip to one shoulder

Kata-tori men-uchi

one handed grip on one shoulder with shomen-uchi strike to the head

Kata-tori yokomen-uchi

one handed grip on one shoulder with yokomen-uchi strike to the head

Kata renshu

training involving the accurate repetition of specific
pre-defined kata (forms)

Keiko

training or practice

Ken

referring to the Japanese sword

Kesa-uchi

diagonal strike to the side of the neck with the intent of cutting the body

Ki

spirit, life force, or vital energy

Kiai

a forceful exhalation of the breath with a sharp vocalization, shout or scream

Kihon

basic (basic point, emphasis point)

Kihon-waza

training in basic techniques; can also refer to “static” practice of techniques. (also see: Kotai)

Kime

mental focus

Kime

lock/immobilization (eg. Hiji-kime: elbow immobilization)

Ki-musubi

to connect/bind the ki

Ki-musubi-no-tachi

series of paired sword encounter movements that build awareness of connection/ki of the partner

Ki no nagare

to flow with ki (flowing/continuous practice)

Kiri

to cut

Kiri-kaeshi

turning cutting movement with the sword

Koan

Zen training riddle

Kobudo

refers to older/traditional budo, or budo of the pre-modern era

Kohai

one’s junior

Koho

backward, to the rear

Koho tankan

backward turning step

Koho ukemi

backward ukemi

Koho tendo undo

backward rolling exercises

Kokoro

“heart”

Kokyu

breath

Kokyu-dosa

seated breath power exercise

Kokyu-nage

breath throw

Kokyu ho

breath exercise (“method of the breath”)

Kokyu ryoku

breath power

“Konban wa”

“Good evening”

“Konnichi wa”

“Good day”

Kosa

to cross over or pass

Kosa-tori

cross hand grasp to the wrist, the same as Ai-hanmi katate-tori

Koshi

referring to the hip(s) or lower back

Koshi-nage

hip throw

Kotai (also: Gotai)

static training. Compare: jutai, ryutai and ki-no-nagare

Kote

wrist/forearm

Kote-gaeshi

wrist/palm turning throw

Kote-hineri

twisting of the wrist (eg. Sankyo)

Kote-mawashi

turning of the wrist (eg. Nikyo)

Ku

the number “nine”

Kubi

neck

Kubishime

neck choke

Kumi

group/set

Kumi-jo

jo-staff techniques/encounters, practiced jo against jo

Kumi-tachi

sword exercises/encounters, practiced sword against sword

Kuzushi

to break the balance

Kyu

rank, grade, level (also: term for a white belt rank/grade)

L

Terms starting with the letter ‘L’ are not found in Japanese

M

Ma-ai

“distance” or “spacing” between two or more persons
(In a martial context this is used in reference to physical distance between two parties. May also be used in reference to “psychological” or “psychic” distance)

Mae-geri

front kick

Mae-ukemi

forward roll or fall

“Masakatsu Agatsu”

“True Victory is Self-Victory” – a principal tenet of AIKIDO

“Matte!”

“stop!”

Mawashi

to turn around or rotate

Men

Referring to the face or head

Metsuke

a way of using/focusing the eyes (referring to: eye focus)

Michi

a “Way”, “road” or “path”

Migi

right. Refers to right side – eg. Migi-hanmi = right foot forward stance (Compare: hidari)

Misogi

self purification

Mitori-keiko
(also Mitori-geiko)

training with the eyes (observing training)

Mochi

grasp (eg. katate-mochi)

Mokuso

Silent meditation or concentration

Morote-tori

two handed grip, both on one wrist

Mu

nothing/empty

Mudansha

practitioner below dan grade (lit: “no rank person”)
(compare: Yudansha)

Mune

chest or lapel

Mune-mochi

one handed grip on lapel

Mune-tori (also: Mune-dori)

one handed grip on lapel

Mushin

empty mind

Muso Shinden Ryu

name of a style/school of Iaido

Musubi

to tie together
(eg. “ki musubi”, meaning: “to bind/tie-up Ki”)

N

Nage

the person who performs the technique (also: shite or tori)

Nagare

from the Japanese verb “Nagaru” – to flow

Nagewaza

throwing techniques

Nana (also: Shichi)

the number “seven”

Nen

purity/unity of mind

Ni

the number “two”

Nikkyo

“second technique” arm control technique applied with a wrist/hand turn

Ni-nin-gake

two person attacks/training (see also: Futari-tori)

O

Obi

belt

Oitsuki

a strike with same arm and foot forward
also called jyuntsuki

Omote

to the front (movement or direction)

Onegaishimasu

lit. “I make a request”
(as in: “Please”, when asking for something)

Osae

control (eg. ude-osae = arm control)

Osae-waza

controlling techniques

O-Sensei

“great teacher” or “revered teacher” (in Aikido this title is most often used in reference to Master Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido)

Otoshi

drop (as in a technique, eg. Sumi-otoshi= corner drop)

Oyo-waza

applied techniques, modified for efficiency

P

Terms starting with the letter ‘P’ are rarely used in Japanese

Q

Terms starting with the letter ‘Q’ are not used in Japanese

R

Randori

free-style practice or sparring, often freestyle with multiple-attacker. Lit. “messy striking”

Rei

term meaning “veneration” or “respect”. Also refers to the etiquette and the formal bow or salutation,  in the context of showing respect

Reigi (also: Reigi-saho)

Etiquette/manner of respectful conduct – in the context of showing veneration or respect

Renshu

“training”: to prepare or train the body through repetition

Renzoku

continuous

Renzoku uchikomi

jo-staff exercise

Ritsurei

standing bow

Rokkyo

“Sixth teaching”: a technique which applies a bar or pin to the elbow (See: hiji-kime/hiji-jime osae)

Rokku

the number “six”

Ryo

both

Ryote-mochi

two handed grip, one on each wrist

Ryokata-tori

two handed grip, one to each shoulder

Ryote-tori

two handed grip, one on each wrist

Ryu

school or tradition

Ryu

“to flow”

Ryu-tai

flowing/fluid training.
(compare: jutai, ryutai and ki-no-nagare)

S

Sabaki

(body) movement (eg. Tai-sabaki or Ashi-sabaki)

San

the number “three”

Sankaku

triangle

Sankakutai

lit: “triangle body” refers to the positioning of the feet in hanmi to make a triangular shape

Sankyo

movement similar to ikkyo with added outward twisting of the hand/palm

San-nin-dori

three person attacks/training

San-nin-gake

three person attacks/training

Saya

sword scabbard

Saya-biki

refers to the sliding movement of the scabbard around the hip, while drawing a Japanese sword

Satori

enlightenment (in reference to meditation/Zen training)

Seigan

middle “ready” position with tachi or bokken

Seiretsu!

“line up!”

Seiza

formal sitting position on the knees (correct/preferred way to sit on the mat in the dojo)

Sempai

a senior student

Senaka undo

back stretch

Senaka

the back (of the body)

Sen-no-sen

refers to the timing of response to an attack: in this case countering/responding as an attack is initiated

Sen-sen-no-sen

refers to the timing of response to an attack: in this case countering/responding before an attack is initiated or formulated

Sensei

teacher, lit. “one who was born before”

Shi (also: Yon)

the number “four”

Shi

“death” or “dead”

Shiai

competition or tournament

Shichi (also: Nana)

the number “seven”

Shidoin

a formal title with an approximate meaning of “instructor”

Shihan

a formal title meaning, approximately, “master instructor” or “teacher of teachers” (usually only given to professional instructors of 6th dan rank or above)

Shiho

four directions

Shiho-giri

four direction cutting

Shiho-nage

four direction throw

Shi-kaku

a square; fourth corner (also: ‘dead corner’)

Shiki

courage

Shikko

knee walking

Shime

squeeze or strangle (as in a joint lock, or application of a choke)

Shimoseki

refers to a location or position in the dojo.  Lower place or lower seat (on the left side when facing the kamiza)

Shimoza

refers to position in the dojo.  Lower seat (the side of the dojo opposite the kamiza)

Shin

mind/heart

Shinken

sharp authentic Japanese sword; a “live-blade”

Shinogi

a ridge on the rear lateral side of a sword/bokken

Shisei

posture

Shite

thrower, throwing side; protagonist

Shizentai

natural body posture

Sho

first; beginning

Shodan

lit: “first step”. Refers to the first “dan” or black belt grade

Shomen

directly in front; Lit: “straight face” (referring to the front of the dojo, or to an attack to the head/face)

Shomen-ate

an attack to the head/face

“Shomen ni rei!”

“rei/bow to the shomen of the dojo!”

Shomen-uchi

vertical strike to the center of the head with the hand blade

Shoshinsha

beginner

Shuto (also: Tegatana)

hand blade

Sode

sleeve (at the elbow)

Sode-tori

one handed grip to the sleeve (near the elbow)

Soku iriminage

a side entering throw with the arm across the partners chest (also: Kokyuho)

Soto

outside; eg: as in “soto-tenkan” (outside body turning movement)

Soto-kaiten

outside turning/rotation

Soto-tenkan

Turning/rotating to the outside

Suburi

a basic movement of repetitive body/mind purification training (often with a weapon)

Suki

referring to a physical or mental “opening”; undefended point

Sumi-otoshi

corner drop

Sutemi

Lit: “to throw away/sacrifice the body”

Sutemi-waza

“sacrifice” techniques that involve intentionally losing one’s own balance

Suri

To rub, graze, scrape, abrade to slide

Suri-ashi

to slide the legs/feet (a method of walking by sliding the feet)

Suwari waza

techniques performed from a kneeling position

T

Tachi tori

sword taking (disarming) techniques

Tachi waza

techniques performed from a standing position

Taijutsu

body arts; empty-handed (unarmed) techniques

Tai-no henko

lit: “change of the body”; body changing/turning exercise

Tai-sabaki

body movement

Taiso

Body exercises

Tanden

center (also see: hara)

Tanren

drill/exercise

Tanto

knife (usually < 25-30cm)

Tanto-tori

knife taking (disarming) techniques

Tatami

traditional Japanese mat made of bound-straw

Te

referring to hand/hands (eg. Tegatana = “hand blade”)

Tegatana

hand-sword/hand-blade (see also: Shuto)

Te-ho-doki

method of moving the hand to detach a katate-tori grip

Tekubi

wrist

Tenchi-nage

“heaven and earth” throw

Tenkan

turn around, conversion, change body pivoting/turning movement

Tori

take, hold, take away; thrower, throwing side;
person who executes a technique (see also: shite and nage)

Torii

a Japanese gate

Tsuba

sword guard

Tsuka

the handle of a Japanese sword

Tsuka-ate

a strike with the “butt” or handle of a bokken or Japanese sword

Tsugi-ashi

following step; a sliding step where the front foot slides and the back foot follows without passing the front foot

Tsuki (also: Zuki)

a straight thrust or punch

Torifune

“Rowing exercise” (also called: Funakogi Undo)

Toyama-no-metsuke

lit: “far mountain attention” or “far mountain eyes; refers to the way/method of focusing the eyes during training

U

Uchi

referring to “inside”, as in uchi-tenkan (inside body turning movement)

Uchi

a strike (eg. shomen-uchi)

Uchi-deshi

live-in student or inside student

Ude

arm

Udekime-nage

arm-lock throw

Ue

high (referring to location)

Uke

one who receives; the person being thrown

Uke

block or parry (eg. Jodan uke= block or parry overhead)

Ukemi

receiving a technique; falling

Undo

exercise

Ura

rear; back (direction)

Ushiro

toward/from the back/rear

Ushiro-geri

back kick

Ushiro ryokata-tori

two handed attack: one hand grasps each shoulder from behind the nage (left hand grasps left shoulder, right hand grasps right shoulder)

Ushiro ryotekubi-tori

two handed attack: one hand grasps each wrist from behind the nage (left hand to left wrist, right hand to right wrist)

Ushiro-tenkan

backward turning step

Ushiro-ukemi

backward/rearward fall

Ushiro-waza

techniques involving attacks from behind the nage

V

Terms starting with the letter ‘V’ are not found in Japanese

W

Waza

Technique (singular or plural); skill; training method

Waka sensei

“young teacher”; used in aikido in reference to the successor of the Doshu

Waki

side (of the body)

Waki-kamae

side guard position, where the sword is held to the rear of the body in a low position

Waki-o-shimeru

a posture where the arm pits are kept closed (or in tension)

Wakizashi

Japanese short sword

X

Terms starting with the letter ‘X’ are not found in Japanese

Y

“Yame!”

“stop!” or “finish!”

Yawara

refers to a historical style of jujutsu

Yoko

side, sideways, horizontal

Yoko-geri

side kick

Yoko-giri

diagonal cut (typically with a sword)

Yoko-ukemi

Falling to the side in ukemi

Yokomen

side of the head

Yokomen-uchi

diagonal strike to the side of the opponent’s head with the handblade

Yoko-ukemi

sideways fall

Yonkyo

“fourth teaching” ikkyo with application of pressure to a point on the wrist

Yudansha

refers to person(s) who hold blackbelt rank

Z

Za

seated position

Zaidan Hojin Aikikai

Aikikai Foundation

Zarei

refers to a bow from the seated or seiza position

Zanshin

lit: “remaining mind”; extension of continuous attention and awareness

Zazen

sitting meditation (see also: mokuso)

Zempo

to the rear, backward (eg. “zempo-kaiten”)

Zen

refers to a form of Buddhism

Zo-kin

cloths used for washing the dojo floor

Zori

Japanese-style open sandals. Traditionally made from rice straw or lacquered wood

-Zuki

see: “tsuki”

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